Flora fauna weeds

Native plants/flora

The Australian flora present on the site may be broadly divided into two categories:

A.  Disturbed plant communities – “Modified Bushland”. Some of the natural native plant communities along the upper reaches of Lawson Creek have been disrupted by weeds or infrastructure development such as pipe and powerline construction. Weeds such as Privet, Blackberry and Japanese Honeysuckle dominate or intermingle with individual and small stands of mixed native species.

Homalanthus populifolius (Bleeding Heart) left, Gleichenia dicarpa (Coral Fern) centre, in the 2016 regeneration area. Mar 2016 Photo: P Ardill

Mature Homalanthus populifolius (Bleeding Heart) left, Gleichenia dicarpa (Coral Fern) centre in the 2016 regeneration area and adjacent to recent contract work. Mar 2016. Photo P Ardill

Omalanthus populifolius seedlings Mar 2016 Photo: P Ardill 2016

Homolanthus populifolius seedlings Mar 2016 Photo: R Grieve 2016

B. Intact and relatively undisturbed native plant communities. They are located along the middle and lower reaches of Lawson Creek and extend towards the south of the site and the National Park. There are four indigenous and relatively undisturbed vegetation communities present at the South Lawson Park bushcare site.

(To view the locations of each of these plant communities go to BMCC Interactive Maps: http://emapping.bmcc.nsw.gov.au/connect/analyst/mobile/?mapcfg=Locality#/main?mapcfg=Locality   Search: South Lawson Park; Menu: Vegetation community).

1. Woodlands. They consist of medium to tall dominant tree species and associated shrubs. There are two main groups of open-canopy tree community:

A. Eucalyptus piperita (Sydney Peppermint) – Angophora costata (Smooth-barked Apple); and

B. Corymba gummifera (Red Bloodwood) – Eucalyptus sieberi (Black or Silvertop Ash).

These types of woodlands are the most extensive form of vegetation present on the site and the forest trees of these two communities have evolved to grow on sandstone based soils that are of average to low fertility and very well drained.

 

Woodland (Eucalyptus and Angophora species) bordering denser riparian vegetation in background, Lawson Creek, December 2017 Photo: P Ardill

Woodland (Eucalyptus and Angophora species) in foreground bordering denser riparian vegetation in background, Lawson Creek, December 2017 Photo: P Ardill

Woodland indigenous plant species located on the bushcare site:

Acacia terminalis Sunshine Wattle

Angophora costata Smooth-barked Apple; tree

Angophora costata Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Angophora costata Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Billardiera scandens Apple Berry; climber

Cassytha pubescens Devil’s Twine; climber

Caustis flexuosa Old Man’s Beard

Corymba gummifera Red Bloodwood; tree

Dampiera stricta; small shrub

Daviesia corymbosa Narrow Leaf Bitter Pea; shrub

Dianella caerulea Blue Flax Lily

Dianella: V Hong

Dianella sp. Lawson Photo: V Hong 2017

Dillwynia retorta; shrub

Entolasia sp. Right-angled grass

Entolasia sp. grass Lawson Photo: V Hong

Entolasia sp. grass Lawson Photo: V Hong 2017

Eucalyptus piperita Sydney Peppermint; tree

Eucalyptus sieberi Black or Silvertop Ash; tree

Gompholobium sp.; shrub

Goodenia bellidifolia; 

Grevillea sp.; shrub

Grevillea sp. Photo: V Hong

Grevillea sp. Lawson. Photo: V Hong 2017

Hakea dactyloides; shrub/small tree

Hakea salicifolia; shrub/small tree

Hakea sericea Needlebush; tall shrub

Hermarthria uncinata Matgrass (in disturbed regeneration area); grass

Isopogon anemonifolius Drumsticks; shrub

Kunzea ambigua; tall shrub

Lambertia formosa Mountain Devil; shrub

Leptospermum polygalifolium; small tree

Leptospermum trinervium; small tree

Lomandra longifolia

Lomandra Photo: V Hong

Lomandra longifolia Lawson Photo: V Hong 2017

Lomandra obliqua

Lomatia silaifolia

Lycopodium deuterodensum Clubmoss

Microlaena stipoides Weeping Meadow grass

Patersonia sericea Native Iris

Persoonia levis Broad-leaved Geebung; shrub

Persoonia mollis; shrub

Petrophile pulchella; shrub

Petrophile sp. Photo: V Hong 2017

Petrophile sp. Lawson Photo: V Hong 2017

Pteridium esculentum Bracken Fern

Bracken fern Photo: V Hong 2017

Bracken fern Photo: V Hong 2017

2. Blue Mountains Riparian Complex. Sections of the Lawson Creek bank have richer than average soils due to a high content of deposited alluviums. They support moisture loving plants such as ferns, gahnias and the tree species Black Wattle, as well as eucalypyts, banksias, hakeas, acacias and tea-trees, sometimes in dense groves.

Riparian vegetation Lawson Creek December 2017 Photo: P Ardill

Riparian vegetation, Lawson Creek, December 2017 Photo: P Ardill

Some bushcare site species:

Acacia elata Cedar Wattle; tree

Blechnum nudum Fishbone Fern

Blechnum nudum fern Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Blechnum nudum fern Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Callicoma serratifolia Black Wattle; small tree

Black Wattle Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Black Wattle Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Cyathea australis Rough Tree Fern

Lush riparian vegetation Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Lush riparian vegetation with Rough Tree Fern trunk Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Gahnia sieberiana Sword Sedge

Leptospermum polygalifolium Tea-tree

Pittosporum undulatum small tree

Todea Barbara King Fern

3. Blue Mountains Swamps. The sedges, ferns and shrubs of the swamps grow in peaty  soils that contain large amounts of vegetative matter and are located in permanently damp situations.

Some bushcare site species:

A slender, bright green sedge (Baumea rubiginosa?)

Upper section Lawson swamp opp. oval, good condtion, weeded Blackberry, March 2018

Upper section Lawson swamp, sedges, good condition, weeded Blackberry, March 2018 Photo: P Ardill

Acacia ptychoclada Wattle; shrub

Blechnum sp.; fern

Blechnum cartilagenium, Gristle Fern, Lawson swamp, March 2018

A nice stand of a species of Blechnum fern, Lawson swamp, March 2018 Photo: P Ardill

Callistemon citrinus Crimson Bottlebrush; shrub/small tree

Callistemon citrinus (Crimson Bottlebrush) flowering, Lawson Creek swamp, Nov 2011. Open woodland background. Note weedy grasses Photo P Ardill 2011

Callistemon citrinus (Crimson Bottlebrush) flowering Lawson Creek swamp Nov 2011. Open canopy woodland in background. Note weedy grasses Photo: P Ardill 2011

Gleichenia dicarpa Coral fern

Gleichenia fern Photo: V Hong 2017

Gleichenia fern Lawson Photo: V Hong 2017

Gleichenia dicarpa Coral Fern Lawson Swamp July 2009 Photo: P Ardill

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leptospermum sp. Tea-tree

Plague Soldier Beetles on Leptopsermum sp. Tea tree, August 2014 (Photo BMCC)

Plague Soldier Beetles on Leptospermum sp. Tea tree, August 2014 Photo: BMCC

Polyscias sambucifolia Elderberry Panax (edge); shrub

4. Rainforest. The small patches of  valley floor rainforest are dominated by the tall tree Coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum) and Sassafras (Doryphora sassafras) is also present. Todea barbara (King Fern), is prominent. The rainforest plant community enjoys the richer soils of the Lawson and Cataract Creek banks.

Rainforst glade Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

Rainforest glade Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong 2017

 

Note: The State and Commonwealth listed Vulnerable shrub species Persoonia acerosa (Needle Geebung) and the endemic species Acacia ptychoclada, a wattle, have been recorded on the site.

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An excellent reference book for Blue Mountains flora is “Native Plants of the Blue Mountains”, by Margaret Baker and Robyn Corringham, Three Sisters Publications. Available at local bookshops. It’s very reasonably priced and has great illustrations and lots  of information about the local natural environment.

A great way to become familiar with the flora and weeds of the Lawson Creek catchment is to view our eight minute film, Bushcare Blue Mountains: South Lawson Park:  https://vimeo.com/verahong/south-lawson-bushcare . Many thanks to Vera and Craig at Seconds Minutes Hours Productions for their wonderful cinematography.

 

Fern fronds Lawson Creek Photo: V Hong

Emerging fern fronds, Lawson Creek, 2017 Photo: Vera Hong

 

 

Lovely wattle Photo: V Hong

Acacia species, lovely wattle, 2017 Photo: Vera Hong

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Native (indigenous) animals/fauna and introduced species

Approximately 100 indigenous fauna species have been recorded on the site. The list includes terrestrial species such as birds and marsupials and also stream (Lawson Creek) and groundwater (Lawson Creek Swamp) dwelling species.

This fauna list is comprised of:

  1. casual observations made in the South Lawson Park area, either at bushcare sessions or by local residents. Confirmation is based on either: use of a field guide; consult WIRES; photograph; clear sighting of familiar species; online research; trained keying; other resident confirmation; successive sightings; authority confirmation;
  2. two formal fauna surveys (= FS 2018) conducted on November 9 and November 11, 2018. (See: Archives / Fauna survey 2018);
  3. results from Sydney Water/Australian Museum/BMCC volunteer StreamWatch macroinvertebrate sampling (c2000-present); and
  4. results from the Stygofauna Monitoring Project 2011-2013 (See: Archives / Stygofauna Monitoring Project 2011).

Note: * = introduced species.

 

Ring-tailed Possum in the newly regenerated area April 2016

Common Ringtail Possum, Waratah Street, Lawson, April 2016 Photo: P. Ardill

Birds/avifauna

Acanthiza lineata Striated Thornbill (FS 2018)

Acanthiza pusilla Brown Thornbill (FS 2018)

Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris Eastern Spinebill (reported, no date; FS 2018)

Anthochaera carunculata Red Wattlebird (frequent, east Waratah St 1995-2018; FS 2018)

Anthochaera chrysoptera Little Wattlebird (FS 2018)

Alisterus scapularis Australian King-parrot (FS 2018)

Cacatua galerita Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (FS 2018)

Cacatua roseicapilla Galah (17.09.17, detention basin)

Caligasvis chrysop Yellow-faced Treecreeper (FS 2018)

Calyptorhynchus funereus Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo (Cataract Creek July 2018 photo; probable trace east Waratah Street 16.09.18)

Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo Cataract Creek July 2018 (Photo P Ardill)

Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo Cataract Creek July 2018 (Photo P Ardill)

Two x Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoos resting July 2018 Photo: P Ardill

Two x Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoos resting July 2018 Photo: P Ardill

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corvus coronoides Australian Raven juv. (reported, no date)

Cracticus tibicen Australian Magpie (FS 2018)

Cracticus torquatus Grey Butcherbird (17.09.17, detention basin; FS 2018)

Dacelo novaeguineae Laughing Kookaburra (frequent 1995-2018; FS 2018)

Kookaburra, dacelo novaeguineae, November 2018 flora survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Kookaburra, dacelo novaeguineae, November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Kookaburra, November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Kookaburra, November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Dicaeum hirundinaceum Mistletoe Flowerpecker (reported, no date; FS 2018)

Egretta novaehollandiae White-faced Heron (17.09.17, detention basin)

Eopsaltria australis Eastern Yellow Robin (17.06.2018, Waratah St; FS 2018)

Eastern Yellow Robin November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Eastern Yellow Robin November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Eudynamys orientalis Eastern Koel (FS 2018)

Grallina cyanoleuca Magpie-lark; ‘Peewee’ (FS 2018)

Female Peewee, the Magpie-lark, November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Female Peewee, the Magpie-lark, November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Gymnorhina tibicen Australian Magpie (frequent)

Hirundo neoxena Welcome Swallow (FS 2018)

Malurus sp. Fairy-wren sp. (reported, no date)

Malurus cyaneus Superb Fairy-wren (FS 2018)

Meliphaga lewinii Lewin’s Honeyeater (FS 2018)

Menura novaehollandiae Superb Lyrebird (1981; approx 2000; 2015 E, Waratah St east, firm)

Myiagra rubecula Leaden Flycatcher juv. (reported, no date)

Ninox novaeseelandiae Southern Boobook (not seen, heard 1990s Waratah St east)

Ocyphaps lophotes Crested Pigeon (18.09.18 firm, Waratah Street east, P)

Pachycephala pectoralis Golden Whistler (FS 2018)

Pardalotus punctatus Spotted Pardalote (FS 2018)

Platycercus elegans Crimson Rosella (frequent; 2017 & 2018, photo, Waratah St east; FS 2018)

Crimson rosellas (Photo: E Carmichael)

Crimson Rosellas Waratah St east, June 2018 (Photo: E Carmichael)

Psophodes olivaceus Eastern Whipbird (frequent, not seen, heard including 2018 Waratah St east; FS 2018)

Ptilonorhynchus violaceus Satin Bowerbird (frequent, bower at east Waratah St 1990s; FS 2018 female/imm. male;)

Female or immature male Satin Bowerbird November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Female or immature male Satin Bowerbird November 2018 fauna survey Photo: R Pattingale 2018

Podargus strigoides Tawny Frogmouth (2000, pair, Livingstone/Honour ave carpark)

Phylidonyris novaehollandiae New Holland Honeyeater (reported, no date; FS 2018)

Pycnonotus jocosus * Red-whiskered Bulbul (frequent 1995-2015; FS 2018)

Rhipidura albiscapa Grey Fantail (17.06.18, M, Waratah St, photo; FS 2018)

Grey Fantail "Rhipidura albiscapa" Regeneration area 2018

Grey Fantail Regeneration area June 2018 Photo: M Saltis 2018

Scythrops novaehollandiae Channel-billed Cuckoo (FS 2018)

Strepera graculina Pied Currawong (frequent; FS 2018)

Trichoglossus haematodus Rainbow Lorikeet (FS 2018)

Turdus merula* Eastern Blackbird (FS 2018)

Vanellus miles Masked Lapwing (FS 2018)

Cormobates leucophaea White-throated Treecreeper (FS 2018)

Zosterops lateralis Silvereye (FS 2018)

Butterflies (Insects)

Carol Probets 20/02/17, Bellevue Park, 9 species:

Candalides hyacinthina Varied Dusky-blue

Delias sp. Jezebel sp.

Dispar compacta Barred Skipper

Grass-dart species probably

Ocybadistes walkeri Greenish Grass-dart

Hesperilla idothea Flame Sedge-skipper

Netrocoryne repanda Bronze Flat

Tissiphone abeona Varied Sword-grass Brown

Toxida peron Dingy Grass-skipper

Vanessa itea Yellow Admiral

Beetles (Insects)

Chauliognathus lugubris Plague Soldier Beetles (August 2014 photo)

Plague Soldier Beetles on Leptopsermum sp. Tea tree, August 2014 (Photo BMCC)

Plague Soldier Beetles on Leptospermum sp. Tea tree, August 2014 Photo: BMCC

Lawson Creek macroinvertebrates (Insects)

Order:

Hemiptera, Bugs (13.10.17 keyed, mid-Lawson Creek)

Emphemeroptera, Mayfly nymphs (13.10.17 keyed, mid-Lawson Creek)

Mayfly nymph. Lawson Creek, October, 2017

Mayfly nymph. Lawson Creek, October, 2017 (Photo: P Ardill)

Odonata:

Suborder: Epiprocta, Dragonfly nymphs (13.10.17, keyed, mid-Lawson Creek)

Suborder: Zygoptera, Damselfly nymphs (13.10.17, keyed, mid-Lawson Creek)

Lawson Creek Swamp stygofauna / Fresh groundwater fauna

Stygofauna Monitoring Project 2010 -2011 (See: a. Archives / Stygofauna Monitoring Project Report 2011: Extract; b. Streamwatch)

Family:

Ostracods   (Crustaceans)                                  469 qty.

Syncarids     (Crustaceans)                                    53

Mites                                                                         36

Oligochaetes  (Worms)                                        373

Cyclopiod copepods    (Crustaceans)                134

Harpacticoid copepods   (Crustaceans)              14

Nematodes  (Roundworms)                                646

Crayfish (Crustacean)

Euastacus sp. Crayfish (2016, mid-Lawson Creek, P, photo)

Euastacus sp., Spiny Crayfish, a local species, Lawson Creek, 2016. Threatened by poor water quality and fox predation

Euastacus species, Crayfish, Lawson Creek, 2016 (P Ardill)

Frogs (Amphibians)

Crinia signifera Common Eastern Froglet (frequent, heard Lawson mid-swamp, 2009-2018; FS 2018). (North Lawson swamp, 2016, photo).

Crinia signifera, Common Eastern Froglet, North Lawson Park 2016 (Photo: P Ardill)

Crinia signifera, Common Eastern Froglet, North Lawson Park 2016 (Photo: P Ardill)

A green frog probably Litoria phyllochroa Leaf-green Tree Frog (seen 1988 Waratah St east)

Limnodynastes peronii Striped Marsh Frog (frequent; heard upper Lawson Creek 16/09/18; FS 2018)

Litoria verreauxii Verreaux’s Frog (FS 2018)

Uperoleia laevigata Smooth Toadlet (FS 2018)

Snails, slugs (Molluscs)

Arion ater* European Black Slug (centre Waratah St 2016)

Anton ater, European Black Slug.

Anton ater, European Black Slug Photo: P Ardill 2016

Limax maximus* Leopard Slug (FS 2018)

Spider 4 x sp. unknown (FS 2018)

Mammals: marsupials

Antechinus sp. Antechinus sp. (traces/specimens Waratah St, August 2018)

Perameles sp. Probably nasuta Long-nosed Bandicoot (1995 seen, firm; traces 2018, Waratah St east,  firm)

Petaurus breviceps Sugar Glider (trace Waratah Street east, July 2018; seen FS 2018)

Pseudocheirus peregrinus Common Ringtail Possum (April 2016 photo, Waratah St west; FS 2018)

Trichosurus vulpecula Common Brushtail Possum (July 2018 Waratah St east; FS 2018)

Wallabia bicolor Swamp Wallaby (scats detention basin 2017; resident observation, former golf course 2017; scats Waratah St, August 2018)

Swamp Wallaby scays near detention basin 17.09.17

Swamp Wallaby scats near detention basin, Lawson Creek 2017 (Photo: P Ardill)

Mammals: Megabats – Flying Foxes

Pteropus poliocephalus Grey-headed Flying Fox (seen and heard, Honour Ave 2015)

Mammals: Microbats – True Bats

Microbat sp. x 1 unknown (FS 2018)

Reptiles

Chelodina sp; likely longicollis Eastern Long-necked Turtle. (Lawson Creek approx 2000 photo)

Probably Chelodina longicollis, Eastern Long-necked Turtle, Lawson Creek c2000 (BMCC photo)

Probably Chelodina longicollis, Eastern Long-necked Turtle, Lawson Creek c2000 (BMCC photo)

Lampropholis delicata Dark-flecked Garden Sunskink (FS 2018)

Lampropholis guichenoti Common Garden Skink (frequently Waratah St east)

Morelia spilota Diamond Python (2008 Waratah St east)

Notechis scutatis Tiger Snake (2008 Waratah St east)

Pseudechis porphyriacus Red-bellied Black Snake (June 2013 detention basin; frequent 1984-present, Waratah St east)

Pseudonaja textilis Eastern Brown Snake (1984-2012, Waratah St east)

Tiliqua scincoides Blue Tongue Lizard (approx 2000 photo, Waratah St east)

Tiliqua scincoides, Eastern Blue-Tongued Skink Waratah Street c2000

Tiliqua scincoides, Blue Tongue Lizard, Waratah Street, Lawson c2000

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Weeds

The purpose of bushcare is to contribute to the  healthy functioning and preservation of the naturally evolved bushlands and ecosystems of a region. For the purposes of bushcare, a weed is considered to be a plant that is growing in or is likely to spread into but is not a naturally evolved species of the local and regional bushland and ecosystems. A weed can be an overseas species, or an Australian native species that has commenced growing in an ecosystem to which it does not naturally belong.

Some, but not all, introduced plants, in the absence of the natural control factors of their original ecosystem, grow and spread so vigorously that they overwhelm and replace many of the locally and regionally evolved plants that constitute the local ecosystem, significantly altering and even destroying the functioning of that ecosystem. This type of weed may be declared a “Priority Weed” or a “Weed of Regional Concern” under the NSW Biosecurity Act 2015. Public authorities and private landowners are required to manage this declared  weed in a specified way.

This listing of site weeds is not meant to be exhaustive.

The most prevalent and threatening weeds located on the site are:

Arum lily, swamps;

Blackberry, swamps;

Treated Blackberry in Gleichenia swamp, Lawson Creek

Treated Blackberry in Gleichenia swamp, Lawson Creek, 2017 (Photo: P Ardill)

Broom, shrub or small tree in woodland & modified bushland;

Creeping Buttercup, a spreading herb found in damp situations;

Unmanaged stormwater on track, flowing through weeds and carrying seed into Lawson Creek, Waratah Street, June 2007

Creeping Buttercup with Privet in background, Lawson Creek, Waratah Street, June 2007 Photo: P Ardill

English Ivy, a smothering climber, woodland;

Gorse, a highly invasive shrub (two plants), modified bushland;

Japanese Honeysuckle, a vigorous climber, modified bushland;

Juncus microcephalus, a perennial sedge found in damp situations;

Montbretia, a herb that colonises stream banks and damp areas;

Weeds in Lawson swamp: Deadly nightshade, MOntbretia, Arum lily, March 2018

Weeds in Lawson swamp: Arum lily, Deadly nightshade, Montbretia, March 2018 (Photo: P Ardill)

Privet (both small and large leaved varieties), modified bushland & woodland; and

Pussy Willow, damp areas.

Smaller quantities of Cootamundra Wattle, Himalayan Honeysuckle, Butterfly Bush (Buddleia davidii), and Turkey Rhubarb are present and under varying degrees of control.

Weedy grasses are also present and undesirable and are treated when encountered.

See http://weedsbluemountains.org.au  for detailed photographs of weeds and how to treat them. “Grow Me Instead” is a nursery industry website that provides safe home garden planting options to replace the weedy plants that you have thrown out: http://www.growmeinstead.com.au/

Best of all, visit one of the two local provenance native nurseries in the Blue Mountains and buy their plants: Wild Plant Rescue, Katoomba, and the Conservation Society Plant Nursery.

(Australian Copyright Act 1968 applies. Text and photos on this site are subject to copyright)

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