The indigenous (or natural, native) flora of the site can be broadly divided into two categories.
A. Disturbed indigenous plant communities – “Modified Bushland”.
Some of the indigenous plant communities along the upper reaches of Lawson Creek have been disrupted by weeds (scroll down for weed list) or infrastructure development such as pipe and power line construction. In these communities invasive exotic flora species, weeds, such as Privet, Blackberry and Japanese Honeysuckle dominate or intermingle with individual and small stands of mixed native species.
B. Intact indigenous plant communities.
There are four types of indigenous vegetation communities present at the South Lawson Park bushcare site: Open-forest, consisting of various dominant tree species, densely vegetated stream (riparian) strips, swamps and small patches of rainforest. Here they are.
To view the locations of each of these plant communities, visit the Blue Mountains City Council website at https://www.bmcc.nsw.gov.au/development/developing-land/property-search and click on View Interactive Maps. Search South Lawson Park and access Menu/Vegetation community.
These forests form a canopy that allows penetration of sunlight, and consist of a variety of medium height to tall tree species, and associated shrubs, grasses and herbs. At South Lawson Park this forest vegetation community is comprised of two tree groupings.
A. Eucalyptus piperita (Sydney Peppermint) – Angophora costata (Smooth-barked Apple)
B. Corymba gummifera (Red Bloodwood) – Eucalyptus sieberi (Black or Silvertop Ash).
These forests and their trees are the most extensive form of vegetation present on the site. The trees and other plants of these two communities have evolved to grow on sandstone based soils that are of average to low fertility and very well drained.
Here is a list of the major Open-forest tree, shrub and ground-layer species located on and near the bushcare site.
Acacia terminalis Sunshine Wattle
Angophora costata Smooth-barked Apple, tree
Banksia spinulosa Hairpin Banksia
Banksia serrata Old Man Banksia
Billardiera scandens Apple Berry, climber
Cassytha pubescens Devil’s Twine, climber
Caustis flexuosa Old Man’s Beard
Corymba gummifera Red Bloodwood, tree
Dampiera stricta, small shrub
Daviesia corymbosa Narrow Leaf Bitter Pea, shrub
Dianella caerulea, Blue Flax Lily
Dillwynia retorta, shrub
Entolasia sp. Right-angled grass
Eucalyptus piperita Sydney Peppermint, tree
Eucalyptus sp. likely sclerophylla Scribbly Gum, tree
Eucalyptus sieberi Black or Silvertop Ash, tree
Gompholobium sp., shrub
Grevillea sp., shrub
Hakea dactyloides, shrub/small tree
Hakea salicifolia, shrub/small tree
Hakea sericea Needlebush, tall shrub
Hermarthria uncinata Matgrass (in disturbed regeneration area), grass
Isopogon anemonifolius Drumsticks, shrub
Kunzea ambigua Tick Bush, tall shrub, small tree
Lambertia formosa Mountain Devil, shrub
Leptospermum polygalifolium Tea-tree, small tree
Leptospermum trinervium Flaky-bark Tea-tree, small tree
Leucopogon lanceolatus, shrub
Lycopodium deuterodensum Club moss
Microlaena stipoides Weeping Meadow grass
Patersonia sericeaNative Iris
Persoonia levis Broad-leaved Geebung, shrub
Persoonia mollis, shrub
Petrophile pulchella, shrub
Platysace linearifolia, small shrub
Polyscias sambucifolia Elderberry Panax, shrub
Pteridium esculentum Bracken Fern
2. Blue Mountains Riparian Complex.
Sections of the Lawson Creek bank have richer than average soils due to a high content of deposited alluviums. They support moisture loving plants such as ferns, gahnias and the small tree species Black Wattle, as well as eucalypyts, banksias, hakeas, acacias and tea-trees, sometimes in dense groves.
Acacia elata Cedar Wattle, tree
Blechnum nudum Fishbone Fern
Callicoma serratifolia Black Wattle, small tree
Cyathea australis Rough Tree Fern
Gahnia sp. Sedge
Homalanthus populifolius Bleeding Heart or Native poplar, small tree
Leptospermum polygalifolium Tea-tree
Pittosporum undulatum, small tree
Todea Barbara King Fern
3. Blue Mountains Swamps.
The sedges, ferns and shrubs of the Lawson Creek swamps grow in peaty soils that contain large amounts of vegetable matter and are located in permanently damp situations. Swamps play a valuable ecological role, as they are a form of natural dam, storing a large amount of water and releasing it gradually, and so ensuring that streams and waterfalls keep flowing during drier periods.
Baumea rubiginosa (possibly; no inflorescence available) A slender, bright green sedge
Acacia ptychoclada Wattle, shrub
Blechnum wattsii, fern
Callistemon citrinus Crimson Bottlebush, tall shrub
Gleichenia dicarpa Coral Fern
Leptospermum polygalifolium small tree on swamp margins
Polyscias sambucifolia Elderberry Panax, tall shrub on swamp margins
4. Rainforest (Closed-forest).
The small patches of shady, valley floor rainforest are dominated by the tall trees Coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum) and Sassafras (Doryphora sassafras). Cedar Wattle (Acacia elata), Rough Tree Fern (Cyathea australis), King Fern (Todea barbara), and a variety of Blechnum ferns are also present at south Lawson.
(Note: the Commonwealth listed Vulnerable shrub species Persoonia acerosa (Needle Geebung) and the endemic species Acacia ptychoclada, a wattle, have been recorded on the bushcare site.)
An excellent reference book for Blue Mountains flora is Native Plants of the Blue Mountains, by Margaret Baker and Robyn Corringham, Three Sisters Publications. It is available at local bookshops. The book is very reasonably priced, has great illustrations and lots of information about the local natural environment.
A great way to become familiar with the flora and weeds of the Lawson Creek catchment is to view our eight minute film, Bushcare Blue Mountains: South Lawson Park: https://vimeo.com/verahong/south-lawson-bushcare . Many thanks to Vera and Craig at Seconds Minutes Hours Productions for their wonderful cinematography.
Approximately 100 indigenous fauna species have been recorded on the site. The list includes terrestrial species such as birds and marsupials and also stream (Lawson Creek) and groundwater (Lawson Creek Swamp) dwelling species.
The fauna list is comprised of casual observations and formal surveys.
- Casual observations of fauna have been made in the South Lawson Park area, either at bushcare sessions or by local residents, for many years. Confirmation tools and criteria applied have been the use of a field guide; consult WIRES; photograph; clear sighting of familiar species; online research; trained keying; confirmation by numerous residents; successive sightings; authority confirmation.
- Two formal fauna surveys (= FS 2018) were conducted on November 9 and November 11 2018, by J Bear and R Pattingale. (See: Archives / Fauna survey 2018)
- Macroinvertebrate (stream bugs) sampling results from both BMCC Aquatic Systems Officer testing and also volunteer StreamWatch testing extend back to ca.2005.
- Stygofauna (groundwater fauna) densities were recorded during the Stygofauna Monitoring Project 2011-2013 (See: Archives / Stygofauna Monitoring Project 2011).
Note: * = introduced species.
Australian King-Parrot Alisterus scapularis (FS 2018; 2 x Waratah St feeding on Privet seed March 2020)
Australian Magpie Cracticus tibicen (FS 2018)
Australian Raven juv. Corvus coronoides (reported, no date)
Australian Wood Duck Chenonetta jubata (Ferris Lane October 2019)
Brown Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia amboinensis (Lawson Creek feeding on Homalanthus populifolius fruit March 2020)
Brown Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla (FS 2018)
Channel-billed Cuckoo Scythrops novaehollandiae (FS 2018)
Crested Pigeon Ocyphaps lophotes (18.09.18 Waratah Street east)
Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans (frequent; 2017 & 2018, photo, Waratah St east; FS 2018)
Eastern Blackbird Turdus merula* (FS 2018)
Eastern Koel Eudynamys orientalis (FS 2018)
Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (FS 2018)
Eastern Whipbird Psophodes olivaceus (frequent, heard 2018 Waratah St east; FS 2018)
Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis (17.06.2018, Waratah St; FS 2018)
Galah Eolophus roseicapilla (17.09.17, detention basin)
Gang-gang Cockatoo Callocephalon fimbriatum (24/02/20, flock of 10-14, Cataract Falls, Cataract Creek, Lawson)
Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis (FS 2018)
Grey Butcherbird Cracticus torquatus (17.09.17, detention basin; FS 2018)
Grey Fantail Rhipidura albiscapa (17.06.18, M, Waratah St; FS 2018)
Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae (frequent 1995-2018; FS 2018)
Leaden Flycatcher juv. Myiagra rubecula (reported, no date)
Lewin’s Honeyeater Meliphaga lewinii (FS 2018)
Little Wattlebird Anthochaera chrysoptera (FS 2018)
Magpie-lark, ‘Peewee’ Grallina cyanoleuca (FS 2018)
Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles (FS 2018)
Mistletoe Flowerpecker Dicaeum hirundinaceum (reported, no date; FS 2018)
New Holland Honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehollandiae (FS 2018)
Pied Currawong Strepera graculina (frequent; FS 2018)
Powerful Owl Ninox strenua (Night call recorded in Honour Ave Lawson, J Bear, mid-September 2019)
Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus (FS 2018)
Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii (authority sighting Adelina Falls April 2019)
Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus* (frequent 1995-2015; FS 2018)
Red Wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata (frequent, east Waratah St 1995-2018; FS 2018)
Satin Bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus violaceus (frequent, bower at east Waratah St 1990s; FS 2018)
Silvereye Zosterops lateralis (FS 2018)
Southern Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae (not seen, heard 1990s Waratah St east)
Spotted Pardalote Pardalotus punctatus (FS 2018)
Striated Thornbill Acanthiza lineata (FS 2018)
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo Cacatua galerita (FS 2018)
Superb Fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus (FS 2018)
Superb Lyrebird Menura novaehollandiae (1981; approx 2000; 2015 Waratah St east)
Tawny Frogmouth Podargus strigoides (2000, pair, Livingstone/Honour ave carpark)
Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena (FS 2018)
White-faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae (17.09.17, detention basin)
White-throated Treecreeper Cormobates leucophaea (FS 2018)
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus (2 x Cataract Creek July 2018 photo; probable trace east Waratah Street 16.09.18; 4 birds x Lawson oval/Lawson Creek feeding on Hakea sp. 20/10/19)
Yellow-faced Treecreeper Caligasvis chrysop (FS 2018)
Carol Probets 20/02/17, Bellevue Park, GWH Lawson. 9 species
Candalides hyacinthina Varied Dusky-blue
Delias sp. Jezebel sp.
Dispar compacta Barred Skipper
Grass-dart species probably Ocybadistes walkeri Greenish Grass-dart
Hesperilla idothea Flame Sedge-skipper
Netrocoryne repanda; Bronze Flat
Tissiphone abeona Varied Sword-grass Brown
Toxida peron Dingy Grass-skipper
Vanessa itea Yellow Admiral
Chauliognathus lugubris Plague Soldier Beetles (August 2014 photo)
Lawson Creek macroinvertebrates (Insects)
Hemiptera, Bugs (13.10.17 keyed, mid-Lawson Creek)
Emphemeroptera, Mayfly nymphs (13.10.17 keyed, mid-Lawson Creek)
Suborder: Epiprocta, Dragonfly nymphs (13.10.17, keyed, mid-Lawson Creek)
Suborder: Zygoptera, Damselfly nymphs (13.10.17, keyed, mid-Lawson Creek)
Lawson Creek Swamp stygofauna / Fresh groundwater fauna
Stygofauna Monitoring Project 2010 -2011 (See: a. Archives / Stygofauna Monitoring Project Report 2011: Extract; b. Streamwatch)
Ostracods (Crustaceans) 469 qty.
Syncarids (Crustaceans) 53
Oligochaetes (Worms) 373
Cyclopiod copepods (Crustaceans) 134
Harpacticoid copepods (Crustaceans) 14
Nematodes (Roundworms) 646
Euastacus sp.; Crayfish (2016, mid-Lawson Creek, P, photo) Threatened by poor water quality and fox predation.
Crinia signifera Common Eastern Froglet (frequent, heard Lawson mid-swamp, 2009-2018; FS 2018). (North Lawson swamp, 2016, photo).
A green frog probably Litoria phyllochroa Leaf-green Tree Frog (seen 1988 Waratah St east)
Limnodynastes peronii Striped Marsh Frog (frequent; heard upper Lawson Creek 16/09/18; FS 2018)
Litoria verreauxii Verreaux’s Frog (FS 2018)
Uperoleia laevigata Smooth Toadlet (FS 2018)
Snails, slugs (Molluscs)
Arion ater* European Black Slug (centre Waratah St 2016)
Limax maximus* Leopard Slug (FS 2018)
Spider 4 x sp. unknown (FS 2018)
Antechinus sp. Antechinus sp. (traces/specimens Waratah St, August 2018)
Perameles sp. Probably nasuta Long-nosed Bandicoot (1995 seen, firm; traces 2018, Waratah St east, firm)
Petaurus breviceps Sugar Glider (trace Waratah Street east, July 2018; seen FS 2018)
Pseudocheirus peregrinus Common Ringtail Possum (April 2016 photo, Waratah St west; FS 2018)
Trichosurus vulpecula Common Brushtail Possum (July 2018 Waratah St east; FS 2018)
Wallabia bicolor Swamp Wallaby (scats detention basin 2017; resident sighting, former golf course 2017; scats Waratah St, August 2018, June 2019, March 2020)
Mammals: Megabats- Flying Foxes
Pteropus poliocephalus Grey-headed Flying Fox (observed Honour Ave 2015)
Mammals: Microbats – True Bats
Microbat sp. x 1 unknown (FS 2018)
Chelodina sp. likely longicollis Eastern Long-necked Turtle. (Lawson Creek approx 2000 photo)
Lampropholis delicata Dark-flecked Garden Sunskink (FS 2018)
Lampropholis guichenoti Common Garden Skink (frequently Waratah St east)
Morelia spilota Diamond Python (2008 Waratah St east)
Notechis scutatis Tiger Snake (2008 Waratah St east)
Pseudechis porphyriacus Red-bellied Black Snake (June 2013 detention basin; frequent 1984-present, Waratah St east)
Pseudonaja textilis Eastern Brown Snake (1984-2012, Waratah St east)
Tiliqua scincoides Blue Tongue Lizard (approx 2000 photo, Waratah St east)
The purpose of bushcare is to contribute to the healthy functioning and preservation of the naturally evolved bushlands and ecosystems of a region. For the purposes of bushcare, a weed is considered to be a plant that is growing in or is likely to spread into but is not a naturally evolved species of the local and regional bushland and ecosystems. A weed can be an overseas species, or an Australian native species that has commenced growing in an ecosystem to which it does not naturally belong.
Some, but not all, introduced plants, in the absence of the natural control factors of their original ecosystem, grow and spread so vigorously that they overwhelm and replace many of the locally and regionally evolved plants that constitute the local ecosystem, significantly altering and even destroying the functioning of that ecosystem. This type of weed may be declared a “Priority Weed” or a “Weed of Regional Concern” under the NSW Biosecurity Act 2015. Public authorities and private landowners are required to manage this declared weed in a specified way.
These are the most prevalent and threatening weeds located on the site.
- Arum lily, usually found in swamps
- Blackberry, swamps and modified bushland
- Broom, shrub or small tree found in forest or modified bushland
- Creeping Buttercup, a spreading herb found in damp situations
- English Ivy, a smothering climber, modifed bushland
- Gorse, a highly invasive shrub (two plants 2017), modified bushland
- Grasses such as Panic Veldt Grass (Ehrharta erecta), Yorkshire Fog, Sweet Vernal-grass and Pigeon Grass are present.
- Japanese Honeysuckle, a vigorous climber, modified bushland
- Juncus microcephalus, a perennial sedge found in damp situations
- Montbretia, a herb that colonises stream banks and damp areas
- Privet (both small and large leaved varieties), modified bushland & forest
- Pussy Willow, damp areas.
- Smaller quantities of Cootamundra Wattle, Himalayan Honeysuckle, Butterfly Bush (Buddleia davidii), and Turkey Rhubarb are present and under varying degrees of control.
See https://weedsbluemountains.org.au for detailed photographs of Blue Mountains weeds and how to treat them.
Best of all, visit one of the two local provenance native nurseries in the Blue Mountains and buy their plants. They are Wild Plant Rescue, Katoomba, and the Conservation Society Plant Nursery.
(Australian Copyright Act 1968 applies. Text and photos on this site are subject to copyright. Many thanks to the members of South Lawson Park Bushcare Group, our BMCC Bushcare Officer and Second Minutes Hours Productions for their contributions to this website)